The feds are going to TAX your right to own guns and Ammo Forget about them trying to ban guns!

HR 3018 IH

113th CONGRESS

1st Session

H. R. 3018

To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to increase the excise tax and special occupational tax in respect of firearms and to increase the transfer tax on any other weapon, and for other purposes.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

August 2, 2013

Mr. DANNY K. DAVIS of Illinois (for himself and Mr. PASCRELL) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, and in addition to the Committees on Natural Resources, the Judiciary, Energy and Commerce, and Education and the Workforce, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned


A BILL

To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to increase the excise tax and special occupational tax in respect of firearms and to increase the transfer tax on any other weapon, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ‘Gun Violence Prevention and Safe Communities Act of 2013’.

SEC. 2. INCREASE IN EXCISE TAXES RELATING TO FIREARMS.

    (a) In General- Section 4181 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended to read as follows:

‘SEC. 4181. IMPOSITION OF TAX.

    ‘There is hereby imposed upon the sale by the manufacturer, producer, or importer of the following articles a tax equivalent to the specified percent of the price for which so sold:

      ‘(1) Articles taxable at 20 percent:

        ‘(A) Pistols.

        ‘(B) Revolvers.

        ‘(C) Firearms (other than pistols and revolvers).

        ‘(D) Any lower frame or receiver for a firearm, whether for a semiautomatic pistol, rifle, or shotgun that is designed to accommodate interchangeable upper receivers.

      ‘(2) Articles taxable at 50 percent: Shells and cartridges.’.

    (b) Exemption for United States- Subsection (b) of section 4182 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended to read as follows:

    ‘(b) Sales to United States- No firearms, pistols, revolvers, lower frame or receiver for a firearm, shells, and cartridges purchased with funds appropriated for any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States shall be subject to any tax imposed on the sale or transfer of such articles.’.

    (c) Availability of Funds From Increased Taxes-

      (1) ALLOCATION- Amounts in the general fund of the Treasury by reason of section 3(a) of the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act (as amended by paragraph (2) of this subsection) are hereby appropriated and shall be available, as follows:

        (A) 35 percent of such amounts shall be available for community-oriented policing services grants for the hiring and rehiring of additional career law enforcement officers under section 1701(b) of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796dd(b)). States using funds for school resource officers shall include training, protections, and monitoring to ensure that school resource officers are used to improve school safety and climate, and promote positive reform in student suspensions, expulsions, and referrals to the juvenile or criminal justice systems.

        (B) 35 percent of such amounts shall be available for the Project Safe Neighborhoods, as authorized by sections 101 through 104 of the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law 110-5) and Public Law 109-108 (119 Stat. 2290, 2302).

        (C) 10 percent of such amounts shall be available for the Centers for Disease Control National Center for Injury Prevention and Control for purposes of research on gun violence and its prevention.

        (D) 5 percent of such amounts shall be available for the National Criminal History Improvement Program authorized under section 302(c) of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3732(c)).

        (E) 5 percent of such amounts shall be available for the NICS Act Record Improvement Program authorized under section 301 of the NICS Improvement Amendments Act of 2007.

        (F) 5 percent for the Community-Based Violence Prevention Field-Initiated Research and Evaluation Program of the Department of Justice.

        (G) 5 percent of such amounts shall be available for the Secretary of Education to provide directed grants and technical assistance to schools eligible for or receiving grants under part A of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to develop and implement comprehensive, evidence-based local or regional strategies (such as positive behavior interventions and supports, social and emotional learning, and restorative justice programs) to improve school climate, reduce the use of exclusionary school discipline, and decrease the number of youth entering the juvenile and criminal justice systems.

      (2) CONFORMING AMENDMENT- Section 3(a) of the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 669b(a)) is amended by adding at the end the following new sentence: ‘There shall not be covered into the fund the portion of the tax imposed by such section 4181 that is attributable to any increase in amounts received in the Treasury under such section by reason of the amendments made by section 2 of the Gun Violence Prevention and Safe Communities Act of 2013, as estimated by the Secretary.’.

    (d) Effective Date- The amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to sales after December 31, 2013.

SEC. 3. SPECIAL TAX AND LICENSING RELATING TO FIREARMS.

    (a) Increase in Tax-

      (1) GENERAL RULE- Subsection (a) of section 5801 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986–

        (A) in paragraph (1) by striking ‘$1,000’ and inserting ‘$2,000’, and

        (B) in paragraph (2) by striking ‘$500’ and inserting ‘50 percent of the dollar amount applicable under paragraph (1) for the taxable year’.

      (2) SMALL IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS- Paragraph (1) of section 5801(b) of such Code is amended by striking ‘substituting ‘$500’ for ‘$1,000’ and inserting ‘substituting ‘50 percent of the dollar amount applicable under such paragraph for the taxable year’ for ‘$2,000’.

      (3) ADJUSTMENT FOR INFLATION- Section 5801 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:

    ‘(c) Adjustment for Inflation- In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 2014, the dollar amount in subsection (a)(1) shall be increased by an amount equal to–

      ‘(1) such dollar amount, multiplied by

      ‘(2) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting ‘calendar year 2013’ for ‘calendar year 1992’ in subparagraph (B) thereof.

    If any increase under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $10, such increase shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $10.’.

    (b) Increase in Transfer Tax on Firearms-

      (1) IN GENERAL- Subsection (a) of section 5811 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended–

        (A) by striking ‘$200’ and inserting ‘$500’, and

        (B) by striking ‘$5’ and inserting ‘$100’.

      (2) ADJUSTMENT FOR INFLATION- Section 5811 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:

    ‘(d) Adjustment for Inflation- In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 2014, each dollar amount in subsection (a) shall be increased by an amount equal to–

      ‘(1) such dollar amount, multiplied by

      ‘(2) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting ‘calendar year 2013’ for ‘calendar year 1992’ in subparagraph (B) thereof.

    If any increase under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $5, such increase shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $5.’.

    (c) Certain Semiautomatic Pistols Chambered for Cartridges Treated as Firearms- The first sentence of section 5845(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended–

      (1) by striking ‘and’ before ‘(8)’,

      (2) by striking ‘device.’ and inserting ‘device, and’, and

      (3) by adding at the end the following: ‘(9) a semiautomatic pistol chambered for cartridges commonly considered rifle rounds, configured with receivers commonly associated with rifles and capable of accepting detachable magazines.’.

    (d) Effective Dates-

      (1) IN GENERAL- Except as provided by paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section shall take effect on July 1, 2014.

      (2) TRANSFER TAX- The amendment made by subsection (b) shall apply to transfers after December 31, 2013.

      (3) ALL TAXPAYERS TREATED AS COMMENCING IN BUSINESS ON JULY 1, 2014- Any person engaged on July 1, 2014, in any trade or business which is subject to an occupational tax by reason of the amendment made by subsection (b) shall be treated for purposes of such tax as having first engaged in a trade or business on such date.

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Hillary Makes Huge 2016 Blunder, Bashes America, Says Our TV Should Be More Like Al Jazeera

 

08/22/13

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No doubt that American mainstream media has turned to *#%. But Hillary goes so far as to say Al Jazeera is the real news.

From ABC News:

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made it clear today that she is worried the United States is losing what she calls the “information war” abroad.

China and Russia, she says, have started English-language networks that push their message overseas and even the Taliban controls the airwaves in Afghanistan.

And in the Arab world? Al Jazeera is king, and Clinton says she can see why.

“Al Jazeera has been the leader in that are literally changing people’s minds and attitudes. And like it or hate it, it is really effective,” she said.

“In fact viewership of al Jazeera is going up in the United States because it’s real news. You may not agree with it, but you feel like you’re getting real news around the clock instead of a million commercials and, you know, arguments between talking heads and the kind of stuff that we do on our news which, you know, is not particularly informative to us, let alone foreigners,” she added.

I guess this means Hillary wants to see American news be more like Al Jazeera than say, Glenn Beck TV. Hmmmm.

How close is this Administration to the Muslim Brotherhood!

On Wednesday evening, GBTV unveiled a powerful documentary, “Rumors of War III,” exposing how radical Islamists, including the Muslim Brotherhood, are infiltrating American government at its highest levels. Above is a video clip from the program outlining some of the key players involved.

The following is an overview of each of the Islamist figures who have found their place — in some way, shape or form — at the Obama administration’s table.

(Related: Want to Know More About the Islamist Group Exposed in Rumors of War III?)

Want to Know Just How Close the Muslim Brotherhood Is to the Obama Admin?Arif Alikahn, Former Department of Homeland Security Assistant Secretary for Policy Development: Now a Distinguished Visiting Professor of DHS and Counterterrorism at the National Defense University, Alikahn also served as Deputy Mayor for Public Safety for the City of Los Angeles where he reportedly derailed the LAPD’s efforts to monitor the city’s Muslim community — particularly its radical mosques and madrassas where certain 9/11 hijackers were said to have received support. He is affiliated with MPAC, which has called the terrorist group Hezbollah a “liberation movement.”

Salam al-Marayati, Founder and Executive Director of Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC)Want to Know Just How Close the Muslim Brotherhood Is to the Obama Admin?: Marayati is an Iraqi immigrant who drew national attention over a decade ago when then-House Democratic Leader Richard Gephardt nominated him to serve on the National Commission on Terrorism. Backlash over al-Marayati’s defense of Hezbollah and other Islamic groups prompted a withdrawal of the nomination. The Center for Security Policy reports that MPAC was formed in 1986 as the Political Action Committee for the Islamic Center for Southern California, one of the largest Wahhabi mosques in the country. While MPAC later fractioned-off, one of the founders of the Islamic Center, Hassan Hathout, was a senior member of the Muslim Brotherhood who also spent time in Egyptian prison.

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Mohamed Elibiary, Homeland Security Advisory Committee MemberWant to Know Just How Close the Muslim Brotherhood Is to the Obama Admin?: He is the former president of the Freedom and Justice Foundation, which was billed to ”promote a Centrist Public Policy environment in Texas by coordinating the state level government and interfaith community relations for the organized Texas Muslim community.” He spoke at a 2004 conference in Dallas praising the “Great Islamic Visionary” Ayatollah Khomeini. Most recently he is famous for leaking highly sensitive intelligence documents to a media outlet in Texas.

Want to Know Just How Close the Muslim Brotherhood Is to the Obama Admin?Rashad Hussain, State Department Special Envoy to the Organization of Islamic Cooperation: The Global Muslim Brotherhood Daily Report uncovered that Hussain spoke at a conference sponsored by the Muslim Brotherhood affiliate, the Association of Muslim Social Scientists. An internal Brotherhood document dubbed the Social Scientists as one of “our organizations and the organizations of our friends.” Hussain also spoke at the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding of Georgetown University, which reportedly receives Saudi funding and is directed by Muslim Brotherhood advocate, John Esposito. In 2004, Hussain also participated in the Muslim Students Association’s annual conference, a group founded by the Muslim Brotherhood and known as one of its front-groups. The report also asserts that many of the Student Associations’ nearly 600 college chapters “have engaged in extremism and the group closely collaborates with the other Brotherhood fronts.”

Other Brotherhood sympathizers involved in the administration but who tend to travel beneath the radar include:

Want to Know Just How Close the Muslim Brotherhood Is to the Obama Admin?

Imam Mohamed Magid, Homeland Security Countering Violent Extremism Working Group Member : He is a Sudanese-born president for the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) with alleged ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. ISNA’s parent is the Muslim Student Association. ISNA completed a $21 million headquarters in Indianapolis using funds raised in part from Muslim Brotherhood.

Want to Know Just How Close the Muslim Brotherhood Is to the Obama Admin?

Eboo Patel, Obama Administration Advisory Council on Faith-Based Neighborhood Partnerships: Patel spoke at a Muslim Students Association and ISNA convention, appearing on a panel alongside Tariq Ramadan, grandson of the Muslim Brotherhood’s founder, and Siraj Wahhaj, who was named as a possible co-conspirator in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and has defended the convicted WTC bombers. Wahhaj allegedly advocates the Islamic takeover of America.

Want to Know Just How Close the Muslim Brotherhood Is to the Obama Admin?

Huma Abedin, Deputy Chief of Staff to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton: Perhaps most famous for being wife of the disgraced former congressman Anthony Weiner, Huma Abedin appears to have family ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. In an interview with FrontPageMag, anti-Islamist author Walid Shoebat explained that Huma’s mother, Saleha Abedin, is involved with the Muslim Brotherhood and that Huma’s brother, Hassan, sits in on the board of the Oxford Centre For Islamic Studies (OCIS) where he is a fellow and partners with other board members including “Al-Qaeda associate, Omar Naseef and the notorious Muslim Brotherhood leader Sheikh Youssef Qaradawi; both have been listed as OCIS Trustees.”

THE IMPEACHMENT POWER

 

Article II, Section IV of the United States Constitution provides: “The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.”

THE ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT

In his conduct of the office of President of the United States, Barack H. Obama, aka Barry Soetoro, personally and through his subordinates and agents, in violation or disregard of the constitutional rights of citizens and in violation of his constitutional duty to take care that the laws be faithfully executed, has prevented, obstructed, and impeded the administration of justice, in that:

ARTICLE 1

He has covered up, delayed, impeded and obstructed the investigation of the Benghazi Battle.

Specific conduct includes: (1) failing to adequately secure the US Consulate and the CIA annex in Benghazi; (2) failing to send a response team to rescue embattled US citizens in Benghazi; (3) lying to the American people about why the US Consulate and the CIA annex were attacked in Benghazi; and (3) hiding from the media and congressional investigators the Central Intelligence Agency personnel and other wounded US citizens who were on the ground in Benghazi by scattering them throughout the United States, forcing them to adopt new identities and subjecting them to monthly polygraph tests.

Benghazi Battle elements that are under investigation:

On September 11, 2012, the anniversary of the September 11, 2001, the US Consulate and the CIA annex in Benghazi, Libya was targeted in a premeditated, preplanned attack launched without warning by Islamist militants.

Footage of the attack broadcast in real time showed armed men attacking the consulate with rocket-propelled grenades, hand grenades, assault rifles, 14.5 mm anti-aircraft machine guns, truck mounted artillery, diesel canisters, and mortars. It was not an act of savage mob violence, nor a spontaneous protest in response to an anti-Islamic video on YouTube.

In that attack, four American citizens were killed: US Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens; Information Officer Sean Smith; and two embassy security personnel, Glen Doherty and Tyrone Woods, both former Navy SEALs. Ambassador Stevens is the first U.S. ambassador killed in an attack since Adolph Dubs was killed in 1979.

ARTICLE 2

He has disclosed secret grand jury material by exposing the existence of a sealed indictment of one of the Benghazi attackers in violation of Rule 6(e) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure that clearly states: “… no person may disclose the indictment’s existence except as necessary to issue or execute a warrant or summons.’’

ARTICLE 3

He has authorized and permitted the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, a division of the Justice Department, to conduct Operation Fast and Furious, wherein guns were sold to Mexican drug trafficking organizations that were used to kill innocent Mexican civilians and two rifles sold to a smuggler in January 2010 ended up at the scene of the murder of U.S. Border Patrol Agent Brian Terry in December 2010.

ARTICLE 4

He has authorized and permitted confidential income tax returns information from the Internal Revenue Service to be provided to unauthorized individuals, organizations and agencies.

ARTICLE 5

He has caused investigations and audits to be initiated or conducted by the Internal Revenue Service in a discriminatory manner, including harassment and intimidation of conservative, evangelical and Tea Party groups applying for non-profit status between 2010 and 2012.

Elements of this illegal conduct include the facts that: (1) the head of the Internal Revenue Service tax-exempt organization division, Lois Lerner, admitted during a telephonic press event that illegal targeting occurred, then invoked her Fifth Amendment right and refused to answer questions before Congress about the targeting out of fear of self-incrimination; (2) two other career Internal Revenue Service employees stated that they acted at the behest of superiors in Washington — Carter Hull, a retired Internal Revenue Service Attorney and Elizabeth Hofacre, an employee of the Cincinnati IRS office which oversaw tax-exempt applications; and (3) Carter Hull stated that he was directed to forward the targeted applications to, among others, one of only two political appointees in the Internal Revenue Service Chief Counsel William Wilkins.

ARTICLE 6

He has (1) authorized and permitted the National Security Agency to conduct or continue electronic surveillance of over 300 million average Americans; (2) given access to National Security Agency surveillance data to other intelligence units within the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Secret Service, the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security in violation of the law; and (3) conducted the surveillance of average Americans unconstrained by Congress, the United Supreme Court or the US Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court which has, to this date, functioned as a rubber stamp, having approved every request made of it in 2012 and rejecting only two of the 8,591 requests submitted between 2008 and 2012.

ARTICLE 7

He has authorized and permitted the Department of Justice to wiretap and secretly obtain two months of telephone and e-mail records of Fox News Reporter James Rosen and over one hundred Associated Press journalists.

ARTICLE 8

He has thwarted Congress by (1) failing to enforce all or parts of laws duly enacted by Congress, including the Defense of Marriage Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, and the Affordable Care Act; and (2) after Congress refused to pass his Dream Act, unilaterally issuing an executive order directing immigration officers to no longer deport an entire class of illegal immigrants who came here as children, regardless of individual circumstances, and to give them work-authorization permits.

ARTICLE 9

He has violated the Constitution when, on January 4, 2012, (1) he bypassed the U. S. Senate to appoint three members of the National Labor Relations Board, actions that were ruled unconstitutional by the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit which affirmed previous decisions by the Court of Appeal for the D.C. Circuit and the Third Circuit; and (2) he bypassed the U. S. Senate to appoint Richard Cordray to head the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

ARTICLE 10

He has intimidated whistleblowers and brought twice as many prosecutions against whistleblowers as all prior presidents combined. Egregiously, while refusing to prosecute anyone for actual torture, he prosecuted former Central Intelligence Agency employee John Kiriakou for disclosing the torture program.

Wherefore Barack H. Obama, aka Barry Soetoro, by such conduct, warrants impeachment and trial, and removal from office.

A Homeland Security Chief In Bed With Islamists?

Posted 07/30/2013

Jackson-Lee: Voice of reason? AP View Enlarged Image
Cabinet: Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee reportedly is vying to replace Janet Napolitano as Homeland Security secretary. It would be hard to find a choice worse than the gonzo Houston Democrat.
Jackson-Lee has the backing of the Congressional Black Caucus, which has been aggressively lobbying President Obama to diversify his Cabinet.
Given Obama’s radical second-term picks — from Thomas Perez to Mel Watt — we can’t be sure he’ll pass on the recommendation, nutty as it is.
According to the Houston Chronicle, the head of the Black Caucus last week in a letter to Obama praised Jackson-Lee as a “voice of reason” for Homeland Security, giving a whole new meaning to “reason.”
Jackson-Lee’s outrageous remarks over the years — including her comment that welfare entitlements are “earned,” and famously asking where she could find photos of our flag planted on Mars — have made her a laughingstock.
Still, the letter asserts, “Rep. Jackson-Lee would serve as an effective DHS secretary because she understands the importance of increasing border security and maintaining homeland security.”
Yes, Jackson-Lee currently serves on a homeland security subcommittee. But she’s never run any organization, certainly not one as big and critical as DHS.
And Jackson-Lee actually voted against the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which created the DHS.
More concerning is Jackson-Lee’s free association with people DHS is supposed to protect us from. She’s in the pocket of Islamist groups who support terrorism.
According to the Center for Responsive Politics, she is among the top 10 recipients of Arab-Muslim cash and has helped unindicted terrorist co-conspirators raise cash.
At one annual fundraiser for the Council on American-Islamic Relations, she presented the terror-tied group with a congressional recognition award — even though the FBI has banned the group from outreach meetings.
“How proud I am to have been associated with CAIR’s legislative work,” she said at a 2007 CAIR event. “We need CAIR and we need all of you supporting CAIR.”
That same year, she placed at least one CAIR worker in her office, according to “Muslim Mafia.”
This isn’t someone who should be running an agency dedicated to protecting us from Islamic terrorists.
http://news.investors.com/ibd-editor…amist-ties.htm

In Support of Edward Snowden

As any skilled technician (Systems Administrator, Systems Programmer) knows they have total control and access to the system and all levels of security (In most facilities, at least in all the ones I have worked at) This total access DOES give them the ability to do just about anything that someone else can do, usually it is needed so these highly skilled people can evaluate and debug the systems. From firsthand experience of working with a BIG Phone provider we know we collect data from phone companies thru a company’s “Raw Call Data” from the switches installed at company owned sites. In the case of cell phones it would data from cell towers passed thru to the central sites for processing. This data contains “Metadata”, this is usually data in highly compacted format that can contain; caller ID, caller’s ESN of a mobile number, calling number, GPS position of originating caller, roaming location, call duration, calling number GPS location when call is connected, call duration as well as many other items in this “Metadata”.

Phone companies process this “Raw Call Data” through various billing programs while preparing billing statements. This now becomes the company’s “Billing Record Data” that IS kept for year’s offline and is required for audits and legal access by law enforcement purposes.

We have known for years that phone companies have “Hubs” around the country where access has been granted to the federal government to install “Line filters & scanners” that scan ALL data that is going thru any hub for certain so called “Security Risk wording” this is nothing new and has been around now for years here in America. The thought that “Only” calls “Outside” America are looked at is crazy, all data is scanned and filtered by these hub locations in the network.

Now with the new home appliances that are “Smart Appliances” & connected to your home network that connects to the Internet it is possible that some appliances like the new smart TV’s that are voice and visually operated could be hacked into and remotely be turned into a surveillance device without your knowledge, also some smart phones can also be turned on remotely even if powered off and be used as a remote microphone or video monitor. Think about what we have today, smart phones that can access our devices at our homes while we are away, a good hacker can also access these devices and break your encryption if there is any.

Also if a “Sane” person thinks a little and thinks that his or her “Text” messages do not get filtered they would be in for a shock, that same data “SMS Data” passes thru all switches also!

Just because the large companies like Verizon, Google, Facebook are saying that they have “No Direct Links to NSA” DOES NOT MEAN THERE IS NOT A INDIRECT LINK! Remember this; the detail is in how these companies word the responses to avoid being caught in the web of misleading all of us and to forgo legal matters with confidential agreements made with this government and its agencies and bills that provide legal protection for them. Any response that includes “Authority “ in a response must be challenged by do you or your agency have the “ABILITY” because technically we know that systems people DO have the ability!

This is not made up information, talk to engineers who work on switches, talk to systems administrators; look at what Metadata has in its format.